They believed that a supernatural being was responsible for the creation of both humankind and the other animals and plants. For this reason, their cosmology reflects a strong connection between people and the natural environment.
For those that still follow a traditional belief system, ancestral worship is central to their daily religious practice, as it is believed that, if appeased, the ancestors will protect the family, strengthen the community and keep away ill omens.
In the early 1800s, the London Missionary Society became the first group to start operating in Botswana. They established the first educational institutions and, with these, the Christian word began to spread. This was the beginning of the disintegration of many traditional practices and beliefs.
Today, approximately 30 percent of Batswana belong to one of the Christian churches (most are Catholic or Anglican), while over 65 percent adhere to the practices of the African Religion or still follow traditional beliefs.
The African Religion comprises a variety of churches: the Healing Church of Botswana, the Zionist Christian Church and the Apostolic Faith Mission, for example, and these belong to two main movements: the African Independent and Pentecostal churches.These are indigenous religions that practise an integrated form of worship, combining the Christian liturgy with the more ritualistic elements of traditional ancestral worship. Very popular in the rural areas, the African Religion has a strong sense of community worship, rather than the more individualistic routine of modern Christianity.
Traditionally, the Batswana were polygynous, with marriages mostly pre-arranged and taking place shortly after men and women complete their initiation rites into adulthood. Today, with the exception of the Baherero, most Batswana choose their own partners and the marriage ceremony has become an expression of the more contemporary nature of society.
The arrangements are the responsibility of the groom's uncle, rather than the parents, and are negotiated over the course of a number of meetings between the respective families. The traditional custom of the groom paying a bogadi to the bride's family still exists amongst rural families.
The price differs between groups, but it is often seven cows - one for each day of the week - or it may consist of a combination of cows, other livestock and money. Festivities usually take place over three days and, in the rural communities, everyone is entitled to attend. Each family will prepare a feast where livestock are slaughtered, providing food for the respective family members and friends.Once the groom and his uncle have delivered the bride price, then the ceremony may take place, after which there will be plenty of song and dance. The different groups have different lines of inheritance, with some (the Mbukushu and certain groups within the Baherero, for example) being matri-lineal. In a polygynous marriage, the children born to a man's head wife inherit the family estate.